Last Updated 12/12/2002

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Model Rationale
Model Description
Papers, Reports, and Presentations
Model Status
Data Collection Program
Research Group
Research Sponsors
Cost Estimation Bibliography
For Further Information
The COCOMO® Page
The COCOMO® Suite
CSE Home Page

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Model Rationale

The Constructive Rapid Application Development model has its roots in the results of a 1997 CSE Focused Workshop on Rapid Application Development.  RAD refers to an application of any of a number of techniques or strategies to reduce software development cycle time.  The six classes of strategies whose degree of implementation can be used to parameterize a schedule estimate given an effort estimate produced by COCOMO® II.2000 are the following: Development Process Re-engineering (DPRS), Rapid Prototyping (RPRO), Collaboration efficiency (CLAB), Architecture and risk resolution (RESL), Pre-Positioning of assets (PPOS), RAD Capability of Personnel (RCAP).  RESL corresponds to the COCOMO® II scale driver; the other five are new.  All have their effects reflected as multipliers on effort, schedule, number of personnel.  In some cases, the person-months of effort can actually be increased because certain pro-active strategies, like pre-positioning of assets, are only possible with extra effort.

The intent of the Constructive Application Develpment Model is to calculate/predict the schedule (months, M), personnel (P), and adjusted effort (person-months, PM) based on the distribution of effort and schedule to the various stages, and impacts of the selected schedule driver ratings on the M, P, and PM of each stage.

Model Description

The Constructive Application Develpment Model model utilizes a new COCOMO® II extension that allocates effort and schedule to the stages, which are anchored at points in a development life cycle.  The anchor points are Life Cycle Objectives(LCO), Life Cycle Architecture(LCA), and Initial Operational Capability(IOC).

Click image to enlarge chart.

A phased schedule and effort distribution is needed because the effects of the RAD strategies identified above are different for the different stages.  Also, a new mathematical function is used to calculate (predict) the calendar months for a given amount of effort: the function is only radically different in low (under 16) person-month's efforts where it seems more normal have an equal number of people and months to accomplish the task.  At the higher (greater than 120) person-month's efforts, the traditional COCOMO® II.2000 function is used which is based on the traditional cube-root-like function of effort.  A smooth curve is fit within these ranges.

CORADMO also allows the specification of the number of work hours per person-month.

Papers, Reports, and Presentations

Model Status

Currently, a Microsoft Excel  implementation of CORADMO has been developed that includes a zip file with brief instuctions on use.

The key factor in continuing to improve the predictive accuracy of CORADMO is good data. To that end, we are asking for the help of the software industry in collecting data. If you or the organization you work for has the ability to supplysoftware development project data, we would like to hear from you. The benefit to you for participating in data collection will be the availability of a more accurate predictive model for estimating your software project costs.

For further information or to discuss participation in the CORADMO data collection program, please contact us.

Research Group

Research Sponsors

Primary funding and technical support of the development of CORADMO has been provided by the USC-CSE Affiliates. We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge their generous assistance, without whose help the development of CORADMO would have been impossible.

Cost Estimation Bibliography

For an extensive bibliography of software cost estimation related papers and books go here.

For Further Information Please Contact:

Center for Software Engineering
Salvatori Hall Room 328
University of Southern California
941 W. 37th Place
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781

Voice: (213) 740-5703
Fax: (213) 740-4927

Copyright 1998-2002 The University of Southern California

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