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The Constructive Rapid Application Development model has its roots in the
results of a 1997 CSE Focused Workshop on Rapid Application Development.
RAD refers to an application of any of a number of techniques or strategies
to reduce software development cycle time. The six classes of strategies
whose degree of implementation can be used to parameterize a schedule estimate
given an effort estimate produced by COCOMO® II.2000 are the following: Development
Process Re-engineering (DPRS), Rapid Prototyping (RPRO), Collaboration efficiency
(CLAB), Architecture and risk resolution (RESL), Pre-Positioning of assets
(PPOS), RAD Capability of Personnel (RCAP). RESL corresponds to the
COCOMO® II scale driver; the other five are new. All have their effects
reflected as multipliers on effort, schedule, number of personnel.
In some cases, the person-months of effort can actually be increased because
certain pro-active strategies, like pre-positioning of assets, are only possible
with extra effort.
The intent of the Constructive Application Develpment Model is to calculate/predict
the schedule (months, M), personnel (P), and adjusted effort (person-months,
PM) based on the distribution of effort and schedule to the various stages,
and impacts of the selected schedule driver ratings on the M, P, and PM of
The Constructive Application Develpment Model model utilizes a new COCOMO®
II extension that allocates effort and schedule to the stages, which are anchored
at points in a development life cycle. The anchor points are Life Cycle
Objectives(LCO), Life Cycle Architecture(LCA), and Initial Operational Capability(IOC).
Click image to enlarge chart.
A phased schedule and effort distribution is needed because the effects
of the RAD strategies identified above are different for the different stages.
Also, a new mathematical function is used to calculate (predict) the calendar
months for a given amount of effort: the function is only radically different
in low (under 16) person-month's efforts where it seems more normal have
an equal number of people and months to accomplish the task. At the
higher (greater than 120) person-month's efforts, the traditional COCOMO®
II.2000 function is used which is based on the traditional cube-root-like
function of effort. A smooth curve is fit within these ranges.
CORADMO also allows the specification of the number of work hours per person-month.
Papers, Reports, and Presentations
- "USC CORADMO.2001: A Software Cost Model Implementation for RAD",
Presentation, Cyrus Fakharzadeh, Barry Boehm, and A. Winsor Brown, ISPA 2002, May 2002. PDF format
- "CORADMO in 2001: A RAD Odyssey", Presentation, Cyrus Fakharzadeh,
16th International Forum on COCOMO® and Software Cost Modeling, October 2001.
- "CORADMO: A Software Cost Estimation Model for RAD Projects", Presentation,
Cyrus Fakharzadeh and Barry Boehm, ISPA/SCEA 2001, June 2001.
- "CORADMO Update", Presentation, Cyrus Fakharzadeh, CSE Technology
Week, February 2001. PDF format
- "CORADMO Update", Presentation, Cyrus Fakharzadeh, 15th International
Forum on COCOMO® and Software Cost Estimation, October 2000. PDF format
- "CORADMO - Constructive Rapid Application Development Model", Presentation,
Cyrus Fakharzadeh, CSE Technology Week, February 1999 PDF format
- "CORADMO", Presentation, A. Winsor Brown, 13th International Forum
on COCOMO®/SCM, Oct 1998. PDF
- CORADMO Summary, A. Winsor Brown, 1998. PDF format
- CORADMO and COSSEMO Driver Determination Worksheet, A. Winsor Brown,
Currently, a Microsoft Excel implementation of CORADMO has been developed
that includes a zip file with brief instuctions on use.
The key factor in continuing to improve the predictive accuracy of CORADMO
is good data. To that end, we are asking for the help of the software industry
in collecting data. If you or the organization you work for has the ability
to supplysoftware development project data, we would like to hear from you.
The benefit to you for participating in data collection will be the availability
of a more accurate predictive model for estimating your software project
For further information or to discuss participation in the CORADMO data
collection program, please contact us.
- CORADMO Data Gathering Questionnaire
- CORADMO Delphi Exercise
Primary funding and technical support of the development of CORADMO has been
provided by the USC-CSE
Affiliates. We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge their
generous assistance, without whose help the development of CORADMO would have
Cost Estimation Bibliography
For an extensive bibliography of software cost estimation related papers
and books go here.
For Further Information Please Contact:
Center for Software Engineering
Salvatori Hall Room 328
University of Southern California
941 W. 37th Place
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781
Voice: (213) 740-5703
Fax: (213) 740-4927
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