Methodology For Requirements Negotiation
What is EasyWinWin? | Groupware | Events |
Publications | Contact | Download
- Tutorial at the IEEE Joint
International Requirements Engineering Conference (Dortmund,
at the XP2002 conference
(May 26, Alghero, Sardinia, Italy)
- Read the article "Developing
Groupware for Requirements Negotiation: Lessons Learned"
at IEEE Distributed Systems Online
- Download Sample Chapter of Process Guide
What is EasyWinWin?
is a requirements definition methodology that builds on the
win-win negotiation approach and leverages collaborative technology
to improve the involvement and interaction of key stakeholders.
With EasyWinWin, stakeholders move through a step-by-step
win-win negotiation where they collect, elaborate, and prioritize
their requirements, and surface and resolve issues to come
up with mutually satisfactory agreements.
Motivation. The success or failure of a new
system rests squarely on the always shifting, sometimes frustrating
task of requirements definition. Many of the failures, delays,
and budget overruns in software engineering can be traced
directly to shortfalls in the requirements process. There
is no complete set of requirements out there just waiting
to be discovered. Different stakeholders – users, customers,
managers, domain experts, and developers – come to a
project with different expectations and interests. Developers
learn more about the customer’s and user’s world,
while customers and users learn more about what is technically
possible and feasible. Requirements must be negotiated among
the success-critical stakeholders who are often unsure of
their own needs, much less the needs of others. Requirements
negotiation is based on stakeholder co-operation and active
involvement in decision-making to achieve mutually satisfactory
The WinWin negotiation model. The particular
WinWin system we have evolved is based on a negotiation model
for converging to a WinWin agreement, and a WinWin equilibrium
condition to test whether the negotiation process has converged.
The negotiation model guides success-critical stakeholders
in elaborating mutually satisfactory agreements: Stakeholders
express their goals as win conditions. If everyone concurs,
the win conditions become agreements. When stakeholders do
not concur, they identify their conflicted win conditions
and register their conflicts as issues. In this case, stakeholders
invent options for mutual gain and explore the option trade-offs.
Options are iterated and turned into agreements when all stakeholders
concur. A domain taxonomy is used to organize WinWin artifacts.
Important terms of the domain are captured in a glossary.
EasyWinWin methodology. EasyWinWin defines
a set of activities guiding stakeholders through a process
of gathering, elaborating, prioritizing, and negotiating requirements.
EasyWinWin uses group facilitation techniques that are supported
by collaborative tools (electronic brainstorming, categorizing,
polling, etc.). The activities are as follows (follow the
hyperlinks for more details):
- Review and expand negotiation
topics: Stakeholders jointly refine and customize
the outline of negotiation topics based on a domain taxonomy
of software requirements. The shared outline helps to
stimulate thinking, to organize negotiation results, and
serves as a completeness checklist during negotiations.
- Brainstorm stakeholder interests:
Stakeholders share their goals, perspectives, views, and
expectations by gathering statements about their win conditions.
- Converge on Win Conditions:
The team jointly craft a non-redundant list of clearly
stated, unambiguous win conditions by considering all
ideas contributed in the brainstorming session.
- Capture a glossary of Terms:
Stakeholders define and share the meaning of important
keywords of the project/domain in a glossary.
- Prioritize Win Conditions:
The team prioritizes the win conditions to define and
narrow down the scope of work and to gain focus.
- Reveal Issues and Constraints:
Stakeholders surface and understand issues by analyzing
the prioritization poll.
- Identify Issues, Options:
Stakeholders register constraints and conflicting win
conditions as Issues and propose Options to resolve these
- Negotiate Agreements:
The captured decision rationale provides the foundation
to negotiate agreements.
EasyWinWin is a requirements definition approach
that is based on a Group Support System (GSS) by GroupSystems.com
to enable the involvement and interaction of key stakeholders.
A GSS is a suite of software tools that can be used to create,
sustain, and change patterns of group interaction in repeatable,
predictable ways. Each GSS tool can be used to create specific
group dynamics. For example, an electronic brainstorming tool
might be used to cause a group to diverge from comfortable
patterns of thought, seeking farther and farther afield for
new ideas. A categorizing tool, on the other hand, might be
used to cause a group to converge quickly on just the key
issues that are worthy of further attention. A group outlining
tool might let a group organize complex ideas into an understandable
structure, while an electronic polling tool could be used
to provoke discussions that uncover unchallenged assumptions
and reveal unshared information. Because a GSS can be used
to create repeatable patterns of group interaction, it can
be used to create collaborative methodologies that produce
deliverables of consistent quality and detail.
a sample chapter of the EasyWinWin Process Guidebook!
Upcoming EasyWinWin Events
Past EasyWinWin Events
- Tutorial @ XP2002 (the 3rd Int. Conference on eXtreme
Programming and Agile Processes in Software Engineering,
May 26, 2002, Alghero, Sardinia, Italy)
- Tutorial at the IEEE Joint International Requirements
Engineering Conference (September 9-13, 2002, Dortmund,
- September 10 2001, EasyWinWin Tutorial @ ESEC/FSE conference
- May 28 2001, Presentation at Polytechnical University
- May 14 2001, ICSE 2001: "EasyWinWin: A Groupware-Supported
Methodology For Requirements Negotiation", Toronto,
- April 5 2001, "Using WinWin for Requirements Negotiation",
British Computer Society, RESG, Imperial College, London
- EasyWinWin Tutorial: Southern California Software Process
- EasyWinWin Tutorial: Los Angeles Software Process Improvement
- June 2000: EasyWinWin Webinar
- July 2000: EasyWinWin hands-on seminar at USC-CSE
For further information or in case you are interested in organizing
an EasyWinWin negotiation within your organization please
Johannes Kepler University Linz
Systems Engineering and Automation
Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
|Barry W. Boehm
University of Southern California
Center for Software Engineering941 W. 37th Place, SAL
Room 328Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Robert O. Briggs
GroupSystems.com1430 E. Fort Lowell Rd. #301, Tucson,
Briggs B., Grünbacher P., EasyWinWin:
Managing Complexity in Requirements Negotiation with GSS,
Proceedings Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
IEEE Computer Society, 2002.
Boehm B., Grünbacher P., Briggs B., Developing
Groupware for Requirements Negotiation: Lessons Learned,
IEEE Software, May/June 2001, pp. 46-55
Grünbacher P., Briggs B., Surfacing
Tacit Knowledge in Requirements Negotiation: Experiences using
EasyWinWin, Proceedings Hawaii International Conference
on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, 2001.
Stallinger F., Grünbacher P., System
Dynamics Modelling and Simulation of Collaborative Requirements
Engineering, Journal of Systems and Software 59, 3 (Dec.
2001), pp 311-321.
Boehm B., Grünbacher P., Supporting Collaborative Requirements
Negotiation: The EasyWinWin Approach, In: Landauer C., Bellman
K.L. (eds.), Proceedings International Conference on Virtual
Worlds and Simulation, San Diego, January 23-27, 2000.
Grünbacher P., EasyWinWin OnLine: Moderator's Guidebook,
A Methodology for Negotiating Software Requirements. USC-CSE,
JKU Linz, GroupSystems.com, 2000, 2001.
Grünbacher P., Collaborative Requirements Negotiation
with EasyWinWin, 2nd International Workshop on the Requirements
Engineering Process, Greenwich, London, IEEE Computer Society,
2000. ISBN 0-7695-0680-1 pp. 954-960.
Grünbacher P, Integrating Groupware and CASE Capabilities
For Improved Stakeholder Involvement in Collaborative Requirements
Engineering, Proceedings Euromicro 2000 Conference, pp. 232-239,
IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 0-7695-0780-8
Grünbacher P., Egyed A., Medvidovic N., Dimensions of
Concerns in Requirements Negotiation and Architecture Modeling,
In: Tarr P., Harrison W., Finkelstein A., Nuseibeh B., Perry
D., Multi-Dimensional Separation of Concerns, Workshop at
ICSE 2000, Ireland.
Paul Grünbacher was supported by the Austrian
Science Fund (Erwin Schrödinger Grant 1999/J 1764
"Collaborative Requirements Negotiation Aids)